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Environmental Science Adventure School Trips | The Bioasis | Exeter, UK

Booking Conditions

The following Booking Conditions, together with the general information contained on our website and provided in advance of booking, form the basis of your contract with The Immersive Adventure Agency Ltd, trading as The Bioasis. “The Bioasis”, “IAA”, “we”, “us” and “our” means The Immersive Adventure Agency Ltd; Registered in England No. 12730721; VAT Registration No. 353563885; Registered address: 6b King Street, Exeter, EX1 1BH. Please read these Booking Conditions carefully as they set out the respective rights and obligations of all parties.




1.1 In these booking conditions the following terms and expressions are used:

“Booking Fee” means the £85 per person charge (included in the selling price) for processing the booking and confirming the Trip Programme

“Booking Receipt” means the paper or electronic document showing receipt of deposit

"Code of Conduct" means the set of rules and guidelines that the Participant shall abide by whilst on the Trip

"Contract" means the agreement made between the establishment instigating the booking (e.g. school or local authority), acting on behalf of the participants travelling on the Trip, and The Bioasis and which incorporates these terms and conditions

“Departure Date” means the first day of the Trip

"Deposit" means the initial payment made to IAA upon booking the Trip which includes the non-refundable Booking Fee.

“Interim Payment” means any payments made towards the cost of the Trip between the Deposit Payment and the Balance payment

“Balance Payment” means the payment of all outstanding monies related to the cost of the Trip.

"Training course" means training and skills development courses, sessions and/or information provided by The Bioasis virtually, in person, at a school or other venue for Participants, in advance of the Departure Date.

“Due Date” means the due date for payments of the Trip price as set out in the payment plan

"Trip" “Programme” or “Trip Programme” means The Bioasis Mission, as described in the Pre-Booking Information and any included training and services which may be associated with that Trip and supplied prior to the Departure Date.

"Trip Leader" means the person employed or contracted by The Bioasis who has the responsibility for making final decisions within the Leader Team.

"Force Majeure" means any event which We or the supplier of the service(s) in question could not, even with all due care, foresee or forestall such as (by way of example and not by way of limitation) war, threat of war, riot, civil strife, industrial dispute, actual or threatened terrorist activity and its consequences, natural or nuclear disaster, fire, acts of God, adverse weather conditions, flood, epidemic or pandemic illness and all similar events.

“Group” means all Participants and members of the Leader Team on one booking

"Leader Team" means the Trip Leader; the Head Link Teacher, any nominated Link Teacher and/or any Trip Assistants

“Head Link Teacher” means the nominated person employed by the School assigned to direct the Link Teachers who will be a member(s) of the Leader Team during the Trip

"Link Teacher" means the nominated person employed by the School and assigned to a particular team, who will be a member of the Leader Team during the Trip

“Mission” means the specific day to day itinerary booked and undertaken by the Group.  

"Minor Change" means any change to the Trip that is not a Significant Change including changes to itinerary elements or confirmed time changes of 24 hours or less

"Participant" means all persons named on the Booking Receipt or subsequent list of Participants (including anyone who is added or substituted later) or any of them as the context requires and, where they are aged under 18 years, their parent or guardian.

“Pre-booking Information Pack” means the detailed information provided to the School and Participants in advance of booking which contains details of the Trip Programme, inclusions, exclusions, price and other relevant information

"Final Payment Plan" means the payment schedule referred to in the Pre-booking Information Pack which sets out the final and / or interim payments of the Trip Price

"School" means the school, college, local authority, or organisation responsible for initiating the Trip

"Significant Change" means a major amendment to an essential term of this Contract.

“Trip Assistants” means additional supporting staff employed, directly or otherwise by The Bioasis.

"Application Process" means the application that is required by The Bioasis to enrol a Participant on a Trip Programme that includes contact and personal details and constitutes a signed declaration of acceptance of these terms and conditions

"Team" means the Participants and members of the Leader Team participating in a particular Trip

"Travel Insurance Company" means such insurance company that provides Trip travel insurance either direct to the Participant, School or to The Bioasis from time to time

1.2 Where the expression "Participant" includes two or more persons, the obligations expressed or implied relate directly to each Participant.

1.3 Any reference to a statute shall include any statutory extension or modification or re-enactment of such statute and any other instrument plan, regulation, permission or direction made or issued there-under or delivering validity there-from.

1.4 Wording importing the singular meaning shall include the plural meaning and vice versa. All wording within the booking conditions is generalised to the Participant, referring to the masculine, feminine and neuter genders.

1.5 The clause and paragraph headings are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction of this document.

1.6 The expressions used in the Application Process and other documents issued by The Bioasis to the Participant and the School shall have the same meanings as used in these terms and conditions.



2.1 To make a booking each Participant must complete the application process. By completing the application process (whether paper or on-line), the Participant confirms that they have had the opportunity to read and have read these booking conditions and agree to them.

2.2 The Participant understands there are the risks inherent with adventure travel and, whilst those risks will be considered through risk assessment and relevant procedures, the inherent risks associated with an activity or activities can never be fully eliminated and that the enjoyment and excitement of adventure travel is derived, in part, from the inherent dangers and risks associated with the Trip. Risk assessments for The Bioasis are available to be viewed if required. By entering into the Contract the Participant undertakes the Trip voluntarily and at their own risk and confirms that they have researched the nature of the activities undertaken. 

2.3 By accepting these bookings conditions, the Participant is entering into the contract with The Bioasis and accepts The Bioasis and the Leader Team’s authority to make decisions affecting the Team or the Participant. The Participant acknowledges that, whilst on the Trip, the Leader Team will act in loco parentis.

2.4 The Participant declares they are in good psychological and physiological health and unaware of any reason why they may be unsuited to taking part in the planned Trip. The participant agrees to disclose any current or past illness or injury that may affect the Participant’s ability to safely complete the Trip. Failure to declare any medical condition may invalidate a claim under an insurance policy and that such failure to declare information requested in the Application Process might jeopardise the participant’s ability to participate in the planned Trip. Failure to disclose any required information, or keep The Bioasis informed of any changes to information previously given, may result in The Bioasis terminating the Contract and withdrawing the Participant from the Trip.

2.5 Any changes to the information provided by the Participant (whether as part of the Application Process or otherwise) must be notified to The Bioasis as soon as reasonably practicable.

2.6 The Bioasis requires a completed "Parental Consent Form" (either on-line or paper version, either direct to The Bioasis or to the School) confirming that the Participant will adhere to all The Bioasis policies and procedures during the Trip and that the Participant’s place on the Trip cannot be confirmed until this consent has been received.

2.7 The Booking Fee covers costs relating to processing the booking and confirming the Trip Programme. The Booking Fee is non-refundable. Without limitation, it will not be refundable where the School cancels the Trip or where the Trip does not proceed for any reason (including as a result of Unavoidable and Extraordinary Circumstances).



3.1 The Bioasis provides certain equipment for the Trip and the Participant is required to take reasonable care of any such equipment. Where the Participant deliberately or recklessly causes damage to any such equipment, the Participant will be liable for any losses arising from such damage.

3.2 The Bioasis provides a mandatory equipment list for each Trip. It is the Participant’s responsibility to source and procure this equipment. The Participant must ensure that such equipment is of suitable quality and that this equipment accompanies them on the Trip.



4.1 The Bioasis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of information provided. However, changes may sometimes be necessary and The Bioasis reserves the right to change any aspect of the Trip as set out in this paragraph 4.

4.2 While every effort will be made to follow the confirmed Trip, due to the adventurous nature of the Trip and the often-long lead time between date of booking and the Departure Date, the Participant accepts that the availability of activities may change that such change will not constitute a Significant Change.

4.3 Most changes will be Minor Changes.

4.4 If a Significant Change to the Trip is proposed, The Bioasis will inform the School in writing as soon as is reasonably practicable and offer the School the choice of either:

4.4.1 accepting the change; or

4.4.2 transferring to an alternative Departure Date; or

4.4.3 cancelling, in which case the Participant will be offered a refund of all monies paid, less £85 per person to cover the Booking Fee and any Training Courses and materials relating to The Bioasis experience that have already been consumed by the Participant. 



5.1 If the Participant has any medical condition or disability which may affect their participation on the Trip or booking process, they must inform The Bioasis so that The Bioasis can advise them of the suitability of the Trip and making of the booking. If The Bioasis reasonably feel unable to properly accommodate the needs of the person concerned, they reserve the right to decline their reservation or, if full details are not given at the time of booking or the condition / disability develops after booking, cancel their reservation when they become aware of these details.

5.2 Trips operated by The Bioasis are physically and mentally challenging by the very nature of their content, activities and environment. It is the sole responsibility of each Participant to ensure that they are in good mental and physical health and physically fit enough to embark on the chosen Trip.

5.3 In order to assess the risks to a Participant and the Team as a result of a medical condition, The Bioasis reserves the right to seek information and advice from the Participant's GP and/or our medical advisor. Where there is a charge for information from a Participant's GP, this will be at the Participant’s expense.

5.4 The Participant is solely responsible, where necessary, for ensuring that he/she has all necessary valid travel documents and travel insurance.

5.5 In the event of a medical incident requiring withdrawal of the Participant, a member of the Leader Team will, for so long as it is reasonably practicable, accompany the Participant, whilst the remaining Team members continue with the Trip Programme.

5.6 In the event of an accident, any charges incurred by The Bioasis in assisting the Participant or responding to any requests by third parties will be borne by the Participant.

5.7 Participants acknowledge they have a duty of care to the rest of the Group and must act accordingly and in line with UK law, custom and practice, and School policies, and the Code of Conduct. Participants must act so as not to prejudice the good order, discipline or safety of the Trip and refrain from any conduct that may give offence, cause damage to any person or property or detract from the enjoyment of the Trip. The Participant agrees to accept the authority and judgment of the Leader Team and The Bioasis suppliers whilst on the Trip. If, in the opinion of any such person(s), or any other person in a position of authority (such as, for example, land owners, police), the behaviour of a Participant is unacceptable, The Trip Leader may at his or her sole discretion withdraw the Participant from the Trip and the Participant shall be responsible for all costs associated with such withdrawal and their return home.



6.1 The Participant is responsible for payment of the total Trip price.

6.2 The Participant will pay the Trip price to the School (or direct to The Bioasis if requested to do so)

6.3 A binding contract between The Bioasis and the Participant comes into existence when The Bioasis issues its confirmation Booking Receipt to the School. The parties agree that English law (and no other) will apply to the contract and to any dispute, claim or other matter of any description which arises (“claim”) except as set out below. The parties both also agree that any claim must be dealt with by the Courts of England and Wales only, unless, in the case of Court proceedings, the Participant lives in Scotland or Northern Ireland. In this case, proceedings must either be brought in the Courts of the Participant’s home country or those of England and Wales. If proceedings are brought in Scotland or Northern Ireland, the Participant may choose to have their contract and any claim governed by the law of Scotland/Northern Ireland as applicable (but if they do not so choose, English law will apply).

6.4 The Bioasis must receive any payment(s) by the Due Date(s).  If the Participant is paying via School, your Local Authority, governing body or similar, it is important that you make any necessary arrangements to ensure that all payments reach us by the Due Date and inform us immediately you know this might not be possible. If payment is not received in full and on time The Bioasis reserves the right to withdraw the Participant and/or Group from the Trip Programme and treat this as a cancellation by the Participant and/or School and the charges specified in paragraph 8.1 will apply. If the Bioasis do not cancel straight away because the Participant has promised to make payment, the Participant must pay the cancellation charges shown in clause 8 depending on the date The Bioasis reasonably treat the booking as cancelled.

6.5 Once the price of the Trip has been confirmed at the time of booking, then subject to the correction of errors, The Bioasis will only increase or decrease the price in the following circumstances. Price increases or decreases after booking will be passed on by way of a surcharge or refund. A surcharge or refund (as applicable) will be payable, subject to the conditions set out in this clause, in the event of any change in the Trip transportation costs or in dues, taxes or fees payable for services such as landing taxes or embarkation / disembarkation fees at ports. In such instances The Bioasis will be responsible for the amount up to 2% of the trip price and the Participant will be responsible for the balance. If any surcharge is greater than 10% of the cost of the Participant’s Trip (excluding insurance premiums and any amendment charges), the Participant will be entitled to cancel their booking and receive a full refund of all monies they have paid to The Bioasis (except for any amendment charges).

6.6 Any applicable surcharge must be paid with the balance of the cost of the Trip or within 14 days of the issue date printed on the surcharge invoice, whichever is the later.

6.7 A refund will only be payable if the decrease in The Bioasis costs exceeds 2% of the total cost of the Participant’s.

6.8 The Bioasis will not to levy a surcharge within 30 days of the Departure Date. No refund will be payable during this period either.



7.1 The Bioasis may, where reasonably necessary to do so, withdraw a Participant from the Trip Programme at any time (including during the Trip) if The Bioasis believes the Participant is likely to prejudice the good order, discipline or safety of the Trip (including, without limitation, disorderly or abusive conduct; intoxication; failure of control over children; inadequacy of clothing or equipment; incapacity or inability to meet the rigours of the course), fails to adhere to the Code of Conduct, or if the Participant has failed to provide complete and accurate information to The Bioasis, or has failed to comply with the provisions of paragraph 3.

7.2 If the Participant wishes to voluntarily withdraw from the Trip programme prior to the Departure Date, the Participant must inform The Bioasis in writing. If a Participant wishes to voluntarily withdraw from the Trip after the Departure Date, they must inform the Trip Leader who will contact The Bioasis. In either case, the provisions of paragraph 8.1 shall apply.

7.3 If the Participant requires to return from the Trip outside of the Trip Dates pursuant to paragraphs 7.1 or 7.2 the Participant will be responsible for any costs incurred by The Bioasis as a result and for making their own travel arrangements.

7.4 If a Participant is withdrawn from a Trip by his/her School this will be treated as a voluntary withdrawal by the Participant and the conditions of paragraph 7.2 will apply.

7.5 If the Participant or School fail to pay the full Trip price, this will be treated as a voluntary withdrawal from the Trip and the provisions of paragraph 8.1 shall apply.

7.6 In the event a Participant withdraws from the Trip following a change to the Trip Programme which results in an increase in the level of difficulty or risks faced, then the Participant may withdraw from the Trip programme with loss of deposit only.



8.1 If the Participant withdraws, or is withdrawn from the Trip pursuant to paragraph 7, no refund will be given for any unused services and the Participant will be liable to pay to The Bioasis the cancellation charges specified in the table below. Participants are strongly advised to take out cancellation insurance at the time of booking to cover these costs in the event of cancellation.

​​Time between Departure Date and confirmed receipt of notification   |   Percentage of the Trip Price

14 days or less  | 100%

Between 15 days and 45 days  |  85%

Between 46 days and 90 days  |  50%

The Deposit is 100% non-refundable unless cancellation is Covid-19 related and specifically covered under our separate Covid-19 Confidence Promise

8.2 Should a School or Participant, wish to change the Departure Date, where there is a place available, an administration fee of £50.00 per person will be charged to transfer the booking.

8.3 Where information provided by the Participant and used by The Bioasis is found to be incorrect and incurs charges to correct information already provided to suppliers, The Bioasis reserves the right to recover any such costs, charges, and penalties from the Participant and charge an administration fee of £50.



9.1 The Bioasis reserve the right to cancel the Trip. We will not cancel the Trip less than 4 weeks before the Departure Date, except for reasons of Force Majeure. If The Bioasis are unable to provide the Trip for any reason the provisions of paragraph 4.4 shall apply. If it is necessary to cancel the Trip for reasons other than Force Majeure, The Bioasis will also pay the Participant compensation as set out in the table below.

9.2 If the Trip is cancelled The Bioasis will not be liable for any indirect or consequential loss suffered by the Participant such as, but not limited to, onward travel arrangements, subsequent tours or onward flight arrangements.

9.3 In all cases of Significant Change, except where the Significant Change arises due to reasons of Force Majeure, The Bioasis will pay compensation as detailed below:

Time between Departure Date and confirmed receipt of notification  |  Amount Participant will receive.

More than 42 days  |  £Nil

41 - 28 days  | £5.00

27 - 14 days | £10.00

13 days – date of travel | £15.00

9.4 No refund will be made in respect of the Planning Fee.



10.1 The Bioasis’ obligations, and those of our suppliers providing any service or facility included in the Trip, are to take reasonable skill and care to arrange for the provision of such services and facilities. The Participant must show that reasonable skill and care has not been used if the Participant wishes to make any claim.

10.2. The Bioasis shall have no liability where the cause of the failure to provide, or failure in, the Trip or any death or personal injury suffered is not due to any fault on our part or that of our agents or suppliers, because it is either attributable to the School Leader or another member of  the Group, or attributable to someone unconnected with the Trip and is unforeseeable or unavoidable, or is due to unusual or unforeseeable circumstances beyond our control, the consequences of which could not have been avoided even if all due care had been exercised, or an event which neither we, nor our agents or suppliers could have foreseen or forestalled.

10.3. Except in cases involving death, injury or illness, any liability is limited to 2 times the price paid. In the case of damaged property, the liability is limited to a maximum of £500 except where clause 10.5 applies. In all cases The Bioasis specifically excludes all liability for indirect or consequential loss or expense including loss of profits.

10.4 The timings of the Trip Programme are estimates only. These timings may be affected by operational difficulties, schedule changes, tide times, weather conditions or failure of Participants to complete activities and tasks on time.

10.5 Excursions or other tours that the School or Participant may choose to book and pay for whilst on the Trip Programme do not form part of the pre-arranged Trip Programme, are not part of the Trip provided by The Bioasis and the acceptance of liability contained within clause 10.1 will not apply. For any excursion, outside of the Trip Programme, that the School or Participant book, his/her contract will be with the operator of the excursion or tour and not with The Bioasis. The Bioasis shall not be responsible or accept liability for the provision of the excursion or tour or for anything that happens during the course of its provision by the operator. In the event of cancellation or alteration of the Trip, The Bioasis shall have no liability for any losses the School or Participant(s) may incur relating to such excursions or tours.

10.6. Where any claim or part of a claim (including those involving death or personal injury) concerns or is based on any travel arrangements (including the process of getting on and/or off the transport concerned) provided by any air, sea, inland waterway or rail carrier to which any international convention or EU regulation applies, The Bioasis’ liability (including the maximum amount of compensation we will have to pay the Participant, the types of claim and the circumstances in which compensation will be payable) will be limited as if The Bioasis were the carrier in question as referred to below.  The most The Bioasis will have to pay the Participant for that claim or that part of  a claim if The Bioasis are found liable to the Participant on any basis is the most the carrier concerned would have to pay under the international convention or regulation which applies to the travel arrangements in question (for example, the Warsaw Convention as amended or unamended and the Montreal Convention for international travel by air and/or for airlines with an operating licence granted by an EU country, the EC Regulation on Air Carrier Liability No 889/2002 for national and international travel by air, the Athens Convention relating to the carriage of passengers and their luggage by sea (as amended by the 2002 Protocol where applicable) and EC Regulation 392/2009 for carriage by sea, the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims as amended by the 1996 Protocol and COTIF, the Convention on International Travel by Rail). Where applicable, The Bioasis are entitled to rely on any limitation on which any carrier relies or is entitled to rely. Where a carrier is not or would not be obliged to make any payment to you under the applicable international convention or EU regulation (including where any claim is not notified or issued in accordance with the time limits stipulated in the applicable convention or regulation) The Bioasis are similarly not obliged to make a payment to the Participant for that claim or part of the claim.  When making any payment, The Bioasis are entitled to deduct any money which the Participant have received or are entitled to receive from the carrier for the claim in question. Copies of the applicable international conventions and regulations are available from The Bioasis on request.



11.1 The Participant may, with the consent of The Bioasis, transfer its booking to another Participant. Such transfer is subject to:

11.1.1 that Participant accepting the terms of these Booking Conditions and providing to The Bioasis all necessary and requested information;

11.1.2 the replacement Participant being fit to travel and insurable in accordance with these terms and conditions and the terms and conditions of the Travel Insurance Company;

11.1.3 the payment by the Participant of an administration fee of £50.

11.1.4 Payment of any non-recoverable services paid for prior to the date of the transfer of booking

11.1.5 The availability of services at the time of transfer



All prices are calculated on the basis and condition that the minimum group size for the Trip agreed at or before the time of booking is achieved by the School. In the event that the number of paying group members ends up being less than that shown on the Booking Receipt, we reserve the right to offer you the choice of paying an adjusted price based on the actual group size where it is possible for us to operate the tour with a smaller number than the minimum group size. Where we cannot do so or you do not wish to accept the adjusted price, your booking will be cancelled. Cancellation charges will then be payable as shown in Paragraph 8. Providing the minimum group size is achieved when the final balance is paid, we will not, however, adjust the price or cancel for this reason in the event that your group falls below the minimum size at a later stage. Payment of an adjusted price as a result of the group size being smaller than the agreed minimum is not considered an alteration of the price agreed for the tour at the time of booking. This is an option we offer where we can as an alternative to cancellation where you have been unable to meet the minimum group size condition applicable to your booking.

13: Mission Code of Conduct
13.1 In booking a Bioasis Mission, the participant agrees to abide by the following code of conduct:

  • I will take reasonable care of myself and others.

  • I will follow instructions from the leadership team and will bring any concerns about my safety, health and wellbeing and those of others, to the attention of the leadership team.

  • I will not smoke, drink alcohol, take any unprescribed substance, enter into sexual relations with any person or participate in any illegal activity while I am participating on a Bioasis mission or travelling to and from the mission.

  • I will respect others’ rights to peace and quiet at the appropriate times (e.g. bed time) and act in accordance with local customs and culture.  
  • I will respect nature and do all I can to prevent damage to the local environment.  

  • I will look after property and equipment loaned to me and respect the belongings of others.

  • I will not compromise the safety of any student, staff member or any other person on the trip.

13.2 The participant accepts that if they do not adhere to this code of conduct they risk being sent home on the next available transport at their own (or parents’) expense with no right to a refund for unused services.



It is the policy of The Bioasis to ensure equal opportunity to Participants without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, colour, ancestry, religion, national origin, disability or parental status.



15.1 If there is a problem or complaint during the Trip, the Participant must report it to the Leader Team or a Director of The Bioasis immediately to enable prompt and effective efforts to resolve the problem. In the unlikely event that the problem cannot be resolved at this time, and the Participant wishes to raise a complaint, The Bioasis must receive full written details of the complaint within 28 days of the end of the Trip Programme. The full Participants name, the Departure Date, daytime and evening telephone numbers should be included. Failure to take these steps may prejudice The Bioasis ability to resolve any problem and/or investigate it fully and any right to compensation may be lost or reduced.

15.2 Where there is any dispute between the Participant and a member of the Leader Team, the dispute will be determined by The Bioasis, whose decision will be final (usually after consultation with the School and/or Participant).



16.1 The Bioasis takes full responsibility for ensuring that proper security measures are in place to protect the Participant’s information. When the Participant makes a booking, he/she consents (and, where he/she is making the booking on behalf of the Participant who is under 18 years of age, confirms that the Participant gives his/her consent) to all the information he/she provides being passed on to The Bioasis suppliers, wherever they are based. The Participant consents to The Bioasis processing data relating to them for administrative, legal and management purposes and in particular the processing of any 'sensitive personal data' (as defined in the General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR, tailored by the Data Protection Act 2018) relating to the Participant including, without limitation:

16.1.1 information regarding the Participant's physical and mental health or well-being to assess and monitor the Participant's ability to participate on the Trip, and

16.1.2 information about the Participant's dietary requirements and swimming ability

16.2 The Bioasis reserves the right to make the above information available to third parties involved in the Trip (including the School and Leader Team) and other organisations that provide services to The Bioasis, regulatory authorities and governmental or quasi-governmental bodies (whether inside or outside the European Economic Area).

16.3 More information on how we process data can be found in our Privacy Policy on our website at   



By agreeing to these Booking Conditions, the Participant consents (unless otherwise informed to The Bioasis in writing) to The Bioasis staff taking photographs and/or video footage of the Participant during the programme and that these images, or any images supplied to The Bioasis by members of the Group may be used by The Bioasis for, including but not limited to, publicity (including brochures, websites, marketing material and in the media) and training purposes.



If any of these terms and conditions is found by any Court or other competent authority to be wholly or partly unfair or unenforceable the validity of the rest of these terms and conditions and the rest of the term or condition in question shall not be affected and shall remain valid and enforceable to the extent permitted by law.



A person who is not a party to the Contract or these terms and conditions has no right under the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 to enforce any term of the Contract or these terms and conditions but this does not affect any right or remedy of a third party which exists or is available apart from this Act.



These terms and conditions together with the Pre-booking Information Pack form the entire agreement between The Bioasis and the Participant and supersede all prior representations, communications, negotiations and understandings, whether verbal, written or otherwise.

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